Download A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes by Stephen W. Hawking, Ron Miller, Carl Sagan PDF

By Stephen W. Hawking, Ron Miller, Carl Sagan

ISBN-10: 055305340X

ISBN-13: 9780553053401

Stephen Hawking, the most marvelous theoretical physicists in historical past, wrote the fashionable vintage a short background of Time to aid nonscientists comprehend the questions being requested through scientists at the present time: the place did the universe come from? How and why did it start? Will it come to an finish, and if that is so, how? Hawking makes an attempt to bare those questions (and the place we are searching for solutions) utilizing no less than technical jargon. one of the subject matters gracefully coated are gravity, black holes, the massive Bang, the character of time, and physicists' look for a grand unifying concept. this can be deep technological know-how; those recommendations are so mammoth (or so tiny) as to reason vertigo whereas examining, and one can not help yet surprise at Hawking's skill to synthesize this hard topic for individuals now not used to pondering such things as trade dimensions. the adventure is definitely worthy taking, for, as Hawking says, the gift of knowing the universe could be a glimpse of "the brain of God."

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In fact, it is not really consistent to treat light like cannonballs in Newton’s theory of gravity because the speed of light is fixed. (A cannonball fired upward from the earth will be slowed down by gravity and will eventually stop and fall back; a photon, however, must continue upward at a constant speed. ) A consistent theory of how gravity affects light did not come along until Einstein proposed general relativity in 1915. And even then it was a long time before the implications of the theory for massive stars were understood.

Any point on the screen will receive waves from the two slits. However, in general, the distance the light has to travel from the source to the screen via the two slits will be different. This will mean that the waves from the slits will not be in phase with each other when they arrive at the screen: in some places the waves will cancel each other out, and in others they will reinforce each other. The result is a characteristic pattern of light and dark fringes. The remarkable thing is that one gets exactly the same kind of fringes if one replaces the source of light by a source of particles such as electrons with a definite speed (this means that the corresponding waves have a definite length).

He later resigned as Master because of disagreements with the Fellows. There had been a bitter dispute in the college ever since a group of young Fellows returning after the war had voted many of the old Fellows out of the college offices they had held for a long time. This was before my time; I joined the college in 1965 at the tail end of the bitterness, when similar disagreements forced another Nobel Prize – winning Master, Sir Nevill Mott, to resign. Up to about thirty years ago, it was thought that protons and neutrons were “elementary” particles, but experiments in which protons were collided with other protons or electrons at high speeds indicated that they were in fact made up of smaller particles.

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