By Rigomar Rieger
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Additional resources for A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular
Phase - - -- - - - - - - - fuslilnJ =- & ~::::n:::) e::: ~ X ~ ~ • ~ J' ~ J\ ~ t t ~ ~t ~ >C 1 => t IE t ~ ::::l:l:) - - - - -------dII I t: ::s:t::::) Fig. 3. Diagrammatic representation of the bridge-breakage-fusion-bridge cycle in a triploid cell where the black and white chromosomes are derived from separate parents. The chromatid type including all three chromosomes is shown on the left; the chromosome type on the right shows two of the three chromosomes joined to form a dicentric chromosome.
Appear as a -+ lamp brush-like filament, seem to be components of the less dense zone. 2. Neo-centromere (Rhoades 1952): chromosome ends (-+ telomere) which, under certain conditions show movement on the spindle during mitosis and meiosis, just as do the localized centro meres cf these chromosomes. They are secondary centromeres whose activity results in the chromosome ends moving first during anaphase movement. 3. Non-localized centromere: In this case the attachment of the spindle fibers is not confined to a strictly localized segment of the chromosome but takes place along the entire length of the chromosome.
The terms auto- and co-orientation of centro meres (Darlington 1936) are used in describing the orientation proce~s. I. Auto-orientation of centromeres: The orientation of the two sister centro meres of mitotic chromosomes and (in meiosis) of -+ univalents towards opposite cell poles ("amphiorientation"); the centromeres do not orientate themselves in any direct relation to one another but lie directly on the equator. 2. Co-orientation of centromeres: The process of mutual orientation of centromeres of -+ bi- and multivalents during one meiotic division (usually meiosis I), leading to the arrangement of pairing associations on the spindle equator (in this case sister centro meres orient to the same pole: "synorientation").