By Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl
Des Nicholl offers a brand new, totally revised, and improved variation of his well known undergraduate-level textbook. The publication keeps the various positive aspects of the unique variation and nonetheless bargains a concise technical creation to the topic of genetic engineering. it truly is divided into 3 major sections: easy molecular biology, equipment of gene manipulation, and sleek functions of genetic engineering. functions lined within the booklet comprise genomics, protein engineering, gene remedy, cloning, transgenic animals and crops, and bioethics. An advent to Genetic Engineering is vital interpreting for undergraduate scholars of biotechnology, genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Genetic Engineering (Studies in Biology)
Current recommendations from the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) favour the terms coding/noncoding, with the coding strand of DNA taken to be the mRNA-like strand. This convention will be used in this book where coding function is speciﬁed. The terms template and non-template will be used to describe DNA strands when there is not necessarily any coding function involved, as in the copying of DNA strands during cloning procedures.
E. the measure of how radioactive the molecule is. For tracing purposes, a low speciﬁc activity will suﬃce but for probes, a high speciﬁc activity is necessary. In probe preparation the radioactive label is usually the high-energy ␤-emitter 32P. Some common methods of labelling nucleic acid molecules are described below. 1 End labelling In this technique the enzyme polynucleotide kinase is used to transfer the terminal phosphate group of ATP onto 5Ј-hydroxyl termini of nucleic acid molecules. If the ATP donor is radioactively labelled, this produces a labelled Radiolabelling of nucleic acids 31 Fig.
A) A primer is annealed to a single-stranded template and (b) the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I used to synthesise a copy of the DNA. A radiolabelled dNTP (often [␣-35S]dNTP, ﬁlled circles) is incorporated into the DNA. (c) Chain termination occurs when a dideoxy nucleoside triphosphate (ddNTP) is incorporated. (d) A series of four reactions, each containing one ddNTP in addition to the four dNTPs required for chain elongation, generates a set of radiolabelled nested fragments. The generation of fragments for dideoxy sequencing is more complicated than for chemical sequencing, and usually involves subcloning into diﬀerent vectors.