By Jerrold Brandell, Shoshana Ringel
Modern attachment idea either enriches our knowing of human improvement and informs medical perform. It examines the relational bonds among childrens and their caregivers and lines its origins to numerous medical and social fields, such a lot significantly psychoanalysis, social paintings, behaviorism, ethology, evolutionary idea, and biology.The first element of this publication examines attachment conception and its dating to different psychodynamic theories of improvement, from Sigmund Freud to Heinz Kohut, after which discusses the landmark contributions of John Bowlby, the "father" of recent attachment concept. The part concludes with a close precis of study on attachment, highlighting the paintings of Mary Ainsworth, Mary major, Allan Sroufe, and Peter Fonagy.The moment component specializes in scientific purposes with baby, adolescent, and grownup shopper populations. short vignettes and lengthier case illustrations contemplate a number of attachment issues and therapy techniques, paying unique cognizance to scientific strategy and approach, approach dimensions, and transference and countertransference phenomena. situations are set in a number therapy venues, corresponding to collage and relations counseling providers, group psychological future health facilities, and personal perform, and contain consumers of various ethnocultural backgrounds and sexual orientations.Researchers have demonstrated that kid's bonds with their caregivers are rooted in mental in addition to organic factors and feature profound results on later character improvement. Attachment and Dynamic perform bargains a transparent and available advent to attachment thought and examine, linking the sector to a extensive diversity of scientific occasions and psychodynamic versions.
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Extra info for Attachment and Dynamic Practice: An Integrative Guide for Social Workers and Other Clinicians
As individuals mature, they gradually exchange infantile dependency for mutuality and interdependence. Postpartum life, in Fairbairn’s estimation, is the continuation of the intrauterine mental state, one characterized by a near-absolute merger with mother/mother’s body. Fairbairn also refers to this infantile relationship to the mother as one of “primary identifica tion,” which in his view represents “the cathexis [libidinal investment] of an object which has not yet been differentiated from the cathecting sub ject” (Fairbairn, 1941, p.
Bowlby’s concept of the internal working model is not necessarily a negatively valenced one, however, inasmuch as he assumes that all infants develop such representational models on the basis of their attach ment experiences; for some, the model is an open, flexible one, revealing the subject’s capacity to assimilate new information and anchored in a fundamen tally secure attachment experience, whereas for others the model might reflect a kind of attachment rigidity, a foreshortening or derailment of development, perhaps linked to insecure or anxious attachment experiences.
The reception given to Bowlby’s first paper at the British Psychoanalytic Association, “The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother” (1958), was intensely critical. In the paper he applied ethological principles, based on Lorenz’s imprinting experiments with ducklings, to infant behavior. He also compared the infant’s need to maintain a primary attachment to a caregiver to the behavior of monkeys, citing Harlow’s experiments. Using examples from the natural world, he replaced Freud’s drive theory, which he viewed as unscientific, with an ethological-evolutionary perspective.