By Ramón González, Francisco Rodríguez, José Luis Guzmán
This monograph is framed in the context of off-road cellular robotics. particularly, it discusses concerns on the topic of modelling, localization, and movement regulate of tracked cellular robots operating in planar slippery stipulations. Tracked locomotion constitutes a well known answer for cellular structures working over different demanding terrains, as a result, tracked robotics constitutes a huge learn box with many functions (e.g. agriculture, mining, seek and rescue operations, army activities). the categorical subject matters of this monograph are: historic standpoint of tracked cars and tracked robots; trajectory-tracking version taking into consideration slip impact; visual-odometry-based localization options; and complex slip-compensation movement controllers making sure effective real-time execution. actual experiments with a true tracked robotic are awarded exhibiting the higher functionality of the urged novel techniques to recognized ideas.
keyword phrases: longitudinal slip, visible odometry, slip-compensation keep watch over, strong predictive keep watch over, trajectory tracking.
similar topics: Robotics – Mechanical Engineering – Mechanics – desktop technological know-how – man made Intelligence - Applications
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Extra info for Autonomous Tracked Robots in Planar Off-Road Conditions: Modelling, Localization, and Motion Control
Roughly speaking, it is based on estimating the robot motion through the displacement of the objects found in two consecutive acquired images. The most important features of visual odometry in mobile robotics are: • It is a straightforward technique. Visual odometry follows the same concepts of simplicity and practicality of wheel-based odometry. In fact, simple principles of odometry can be successfully applied to other robot conﬁgurations where wheel encoders are not available, such as humanoid robots  or unmanned aerial robots .
On the other hand, the vision-based approach works satisfactorily for velocities lower than 1 [m/s]. For higher velocities, blur eﬀect aﬀects to the images and the forward velocity estimation becomes erroneous. 3). 25 [s]. In order to compare both models, the mobile robot F itorobot was teleoperated over diﬀerent slip-behaviour ﬂat terrains for a ﬁxed distance of 20 [m]. Notice that it can be considered a reasonable distance to obtain reliable conclusions from the physical experiments. 5 [m]. It is important to remark that the robot was moving on open-loop experiments (manually driven), what means that the error between the reference and the trajectory obtained from the kinematic models will diverge.
7b. 7c shows a comparison of the trajectories obtained using the kinematic models. In this case, the trajectory obtained using the EKM closely follows to the ground-truth obtained from DGPS. 78 [m]. 03 [%] for the CKM. As expected, since the CKM does not take into account the slip phenomenon, the travelled distance is larger than that reached by the mobile robot. These data show that slip has a great inﬂuence in the robot motion. 7d displays the slips of each track. In this experiment, the median slip value was close to 12 [%].