By Sunil R. Lakhani, Caroline J. Finlayson, Susan A. Dilly, Mitesh Gandhi
This re-creation is an easy creation to pathology and the mechanisms of illness. It places pathology into its ancient, medical and medical context for all clinical, dental and nursing scholars and different healthiness professionals.
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Additional info for Basic pathology : an introduction to the mechanisms of disease
Damage is reversible after a few hours, but not if left longer. If the tissue freezes the tissue proteins become denatured and the cell dies. Vascular endothelial cells are particularly susceptible. When they thaw, plasma leaks out of the small vessels through the damaged endothelium and the retained red blood cells sludge, obstructing the lumen and causing local infarction of tissue. 3 Frostbite is caused by the freezing of tissues. Sludging of cells in capillaries causes ischaemic damage. 5°C •Freezing of tissues damages endothelial cells •Sludging of cells in blood vessels causes hypoxia or infarction.
Thought to be the human equivalent of BSE, caught from infected cattle). The particle is protein without any evidence of nucleic acid. The misfolding seems to be catching, and once it has begun, the normal protein also becomes misfolded. The effects are to cause degeneration of the brain, which develops a sponge-like texture (‘spongiform encephalopathy’).
Autophagy (Atg) genes identified in yeast are conserved and function in many animals, including mammals. Autophagy appears to be able both to protect a cell and to destroy it (Fig. When nutrients are scarce, digesting intra-cellular macro-molecules can provide the energy to maintain minimal cell functioning. 21 Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is an ordered and energy-requiring process that can be stimulated by diverse agents. There is no associated inflammation. g. radiation CD95 Mitochondrion Initiation Apoptosis stimulated by: Bad, Bak or Bid (activation) Bax (dimerization) Apoptosis inhibited by: Bcl-2 Bcl-XL p53 protein (generated by cell cycle DNA monitoring) Pores form in the mitochondrial membrane, electrochemical membrane gradient collapses Execution Activation of initiator and executor caspases Granzyme secretion Nucleus DNA fragments Orderly catabolism and condensation of cytoskeleton Endonuclease activation, DNA cleavage and condensation on nuclear membrane; fragmentation De De ad Macrophage Disposal Phagocytosis by macrophages and adjacent epithelial cells ad Apoptotic bodies form and bud off from cell membrane.