By Robert B. Gennis
New textbooks in any respect degrees of chemistry seem with nice regularity. a few fields like simple biochemistry, natural response mechanisms, and chemical thermody namics are good represented by means of many fantastic texts, and new or revised versions are released sufficiently frequently to take care of with development in learn. besides the fact that, a few components of chemistry, in particular a lot of these taught on the graduate point, be afflicted by a true loss of updated textbooks. the main severe wishes ensue in fields which are quickly altering. Textbooks in those topics often must be written through scientists truly inquisitive about the learn that is advancing the sphere. it isn't usually effortless to cajole such members to set time apart to aid unfold the data they've got amassed. Our aim, during this sequence, is to pinpoint parts of chemistry the place contemporary development has outpaced what's coated in any to be had textbooks, after which search out and convince specialists in those fields to supply quite concise yet instructive introductions to their fields. those may still serve the desires of 1 semester or one zone graduate classes in chemistry and biochemistry. at times, the provision of texts in lively learn parts can help stimulate the production of recent courses.
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Extra resources for Biomembranes: Molecular Structure and Function
Some lipids are important as regulatory agents. 73). 4. Some lipids participate in biosynthetic pathways. For example, in E. 43). 5. Specific lipids may be required for optimal enzyme activity of particular enzymes. This topic is addressed in Chapter 6. 6. Gangliosides, in particular, have been implicated as playing a role in the regulation of cell growth (1368), in binding to specific receptors in the plasma membrane (210), and in adhesion (812). 7. Other lipid components are also known to play specialized roles.
For well characterized systems, the protein profile on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis can be used to indicate purity. For example, the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria has a distinctive set of polypeptides not found in the cytoplasmic membrane (885). Other features used to evaluate a membrane preparation include morphology, as determined by electron microscopy, and gross compositional characteristics. For example, subcellular membrane preparations containing plasma membrane, Golgi, or mitochondria can be distinguished based on morphology.
This can also result in osmotic disruption of the organelle. Penetration by sucrose can also alter the effective density of the particles being separated (1140). To overcome some of these drawbacks, other density gradient media are becoming increasingly utilized. 1. (1) Ficoll: A high molecular weight (ca. 2 g/m!. A major advantage is low osmotic pressure compared to the equivalent concentration of sucrose (w/v %). 25 M) or physiological salts in the medium. Disadvantages include high viscosity and very non-linear dependence of the viscosity and osmolarity on concentration (1039).